Research Sources

I've added a list of the sources used for my research paper, Medicinal Plants of Delaware, so that folks have the ability to find out more info on our local flora and their medicinal properties. This data is also available on the online Flora of Delaware database. 

I will add more of my online sources, as well as new books I've acquired and found to be reliable so that you can verify the medicinal plant info that I post on this website and have some resources you can use for your own learning. 

I'm doing this for several reasons:

  1. I believe in the healing power of plants and that they truly are the "medicine of the people", and everyone should have access to this knowledge and wisdom. 
  2. I believe that all plant medicine practitioners, teachers, researchers, and salespeople (those who sell herbs, herbal supplements/products, and essential oils) have a responsibility to disseminate accurate information and act with integrity. 
  3. As consumers, we need to use our critical thinking skills and intuition when working with plant medicine, just like we should with every other aspect of our health. We need to be able to do our own research to discover what healing method will serve us best and which information is accurate and applies to us.

When I started studying herbs 20 years ago, I verified usage information across at least 3-5 references before using any plant. I was concerned about safety first and foremost for myself and my family. I use this same practice today. I rely on my training and experience, but continue to research and verify any new information, as there is as much mis-information on the internet as truth. When I come across an unknown herb or previously unknown use of an herb to me, I look at the training of the person posting the information, as well as if they're trying to sell me something. I like to know where their interests lie and how they know what they're telling me. 

I have seen pretty fantastic (and some bordering on wishful fantasy) claims about plants, usually without any sources listed to back them up. And then this same info gets passed on over and over again as truth but with no verification, leaving us eager-to-learn-more folks a bit frustrated and frankly, concerned. 

Safety is always first on my mind, and while most claims of herbs are fairly accurate and unlikely harmful, some info is just dead wrong and can be harmful, especially for specific conditions or when used with medications.

As someone who is interested in the continued unfolding of the mystery of plants and their ability to help us heal, we need to have reliable sources of information from traditional long-term practices like Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, and Native American/Indigenous medicine, as well as access to objective clinical studies that use appropriate sample sizes, follow proper scientific method, and are not paid for by a company who is looking for a specific outcome and willing to do anything to make it turn out the way they want so they can make a buck.

Gandhi said "Be the change you wish to see in the world." So here's a start...

Herbal Blessings,

Citations for Medicinal Plants of Delaware
Angier, B. Field Guide to Medicinal Wild Plants, 2nd Ed. Stackpole Books: Mechanicsburg, PA, 2008

Botanical. An electronic version of A Modern Herbal by Mrs. Maud Grieve. Updated 2012. Accessed August 2012.

Brill, S. and Dean, E. Identifying and Harvesting Edible and Medicinal Plants. Harper Collins: New York, NY, 1994

Custer, J. Delaware Prehistoric Archeology. Associated University Press Inc.: Cranbury, NJ, 1984.

DeBoeser, C., Medicinal Remedies and the Healing Arts Used by the Pennsylvania Dutch and Delaware Indians. Historical Review of Bucks County, Winter 1979, Delaware Department of Transportation. Updated 8/17/2011. Accessed 7/23/12.

Delaware Department of Transportation. Environmental, Prehistoric, and Historic Contexts. Accessed 7/23/12.

Delaware Nursery & Landscape Association. Accessed 9/12/12.

Delaware Invasive Species Council. Accessed 8/28/12
Foster, S. and Duke, J. Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants and Herbs. Houghton Mifflin: New York, NY, 2000

Hoffman, David. Medical Herbalism. Healing Arts Press: Rochester, VT, 2003

Hunter, C.

Kraft, Herbert. The Lenape, Archeology, History and Ethnography. New Jersey Historical Society: Newark, NJ, 1986

Mason, B. Native Naturalists, Overview: Plants Used by the Woodland Tribes. Created for New Castle County Master Gardeners Meeting, October 7, 2009

Moerman, D. Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press: Portland, OR, 1998

PaddlesUpstream, B. Plant Medicine. Updated May 2010. Accessed 7/25/12.

Plants for a Future. Updated 2012. Accessed August 2012.

Skenderi, G., Herbal Vade Mecum. Rutherford, NJ: Herbacy Press, 2003

Speck, F. Medicine Practices of the Northeastern Angonquians. International Congress of Americanists, Washington, D.C., 1917

State of Delaware, Delaware Public Archives. The 17th Century - A Period of Growth and Change., Updated: Tuesday, 22-Dec-2009. Accessed 7/25/12

Tantaquidgeon, Gladys. Folk Medicine of the Delaware and Related Algonkian Indians.  The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission: Harrisburg, PA, 1977

Tillotson, A., Tillotson,N. and Abel Jr., R. The One Earth Herbal Sourcebook. Kensington Publishing Corp.: New York, NY, 2001

Tucker, A. The Official Goldenrod. The Herb Companion, February/March, 1997.

Tucker, A., Maciarello, M., and Klancy, K. Sweet Goldenrod (Solidago odora, Asteraceae): A Medicine, Tea, and State Herb. Economic Botany: The New York Botanical Press, Bronx, NY, 1999, pp. 281-284

USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (, 25 July 2012). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.

Weslager, C.A. Magic Medicine of the Indians. The Middle Atlantic Press: Somerset, NJ, 1973

Winston, D. Materia Medica Sheets. Center for Herbal Studies, 2010-2012


  1. I can't find a "Contact Me" link. I have a question. Thanks.

    1. So sorry - I can be reached at Thanks for reminding me I need to get that contact link back up!


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